MEASURING DEPRIVATION USING THE TOWNSEND INDEX IN WEST
MIDLANDS UNITED KINGDOM
ABSTRACT Deprivation indices are a measure of deprivation in an area. These indices are used to measure the social and material disadvantages. The measurements represent the living conditions which are used to determine these disadvantages. This research was aimed at producing a depravation index using the Townsend index to examine trends in variations of selected indicators; unemployment, car ownership, home ownership and overcrowding. These were supported with readily available census data and boundary data of West Midlands Region from infuse and neighborhood statistics in the UK. GIS was used for importing data and producing maps to depict patterns and levels of deprivation. The Pearson’s Correlation analysis for four indicators was used to establish relationships between them. Based on the GIS analysis of 3487 LSOAs, the Townsend score ranged from -7.50 to 10.13 with a standard deviation of 3.45 which meant, the higher values indicate high level of deprivation. Using SPSS, the correlation analysis of p = 0.000 indicated a strong positive linear relationship between Car ownership and Home ownership (r = 0.895), a linear relationship between Unemployment and Car ownership (r =0.856), a moderate linear relationship between Home ownership and Unemployment (r = 0.542), a strong linear relationship between unemployment and Home ownership (r = 0.781) and a strong positive linear relationship between Car ownership and Overcrowding (r = 0.632).Though these results are statistically significant, they do not show how one variable affects another. Indicator variables were mapped with the Townsend score to show the geographical distribution of deprived areas based on the calculated indices. It was concluded that deprivation can be effectively depicted using GIS. However, not all people staying in deprived marked areas are deprived themselves; the indices merely show a variable degree of deprivation across regions.
0 06 Jul, 2021
key Words: Keywords: Deprivation indices, Townsend
index, GIS, spatial distribution, Correlation
Key Contributors: Yashi, J., Daudu, P. I. and Nyadar B.M.